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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl4212\margr2060\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn4212\margrsxn2060\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li54\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 118       ADVANCE EASTWARD : ASPASIOI ROUTED}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb227\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw16\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 the Persian cause under a prince of the blood royal-\expndtw8 Alexander succeeded, with some difficulty, in subduing \expndtw5 them, and when all opposition was laid low, he rectos sed \expndtw11 the Hindu-Kush in ten days and arrived at the strategic \expndtw8 outpost of  Alexandria\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 under   the   Caucasus,   which-\expndtw10 he had founded in 329 B.C., two years before his hurri\-\expndtw6 cane    campaign    beyond   the   mountains.    He   ttiep-\expndtw9 advanced towards Nikaia, situated "between Alexandria \expndtw12 and the Kabul river";\super 1\nosupersub  here or somewhere "on the way \expndtw10 to the river Kabul,"\super 2\nosupersub    Alexander divided his army irrto \expndtw11 two sections.   One was placed under the command,  oi \expndtw12 his trusted generals, Hephaestion   and Perdiccas, witt \expndtw16 instructions to go ahead and construct a bridge oved \expndtw11 the Indus for the safe passage of his forces; and   trlac \expndtw6 bother was led by Alexander himself against the \expndtw5 tribes and recalcitrant chiefs of the frontier.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li184\fi0\ri0\sb259\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 The Aspasioi routed}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li202\fi432\ri36\sb173\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The Aspasioi (cf. Iranian \i Aspa \i0 or Sanskrit \expndtw12 = horse) of the Alisang-Kunar valley were the \expndtw7 to be subdued by Alexander, who captured 40,000 me \expndtw4 and 2,30,000 oxen transporting the choicest among "tin latter to Macedonia for being employed in agricultiaar* \expndtw14 Arrian (IV, 25), however, deposes that with tlaes \expndtw15 people "the conflict was sharp, not only from til \expndtw9 difficult nature of the ground, but also because 1:1 \expndtw5 Indians were....by far the stoutest warriors in t:H \expndtw2 neighbourhood."\super 3}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li263\fi371\ri0\sb349\sa0\sl-194\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub  \i Cambridge History of India, \i0 Vol. I, p. 348.    Smith  \b loca \b0\expndtw10 Nikaia to the west of modern Jalalabad \i (Early History of \i0\expndtw5 4th ed., p. 53), whereas Holdich puts it at Kabul.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li648\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-194\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex94\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 z\nosupersub  Cambridge History of India, \i0 Vol. I, p. 348, note 3.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li284\fi385\ri0\sb14\sa0\sl-184\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex94\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3\nosupersub  M'crindle, \i Ancient India, Its Invasion by Alexander the \i0\charscalex100\expndtw6 p. 65.   We have given full references in this chapter, because   c \expndtw5 account materially differs from the accepted interpretation   of" \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'95 \expndtw-4\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 evidence.}\par }